Introduction to Ecology
It refers as scientific study of the interaction b/w the organism and their environment. Environment included both biotic and abiotic factor.
Difference between Abiotic and Biotic Factor:
Abiotic Factor: All Non Living Things such as Light, temperature, nutrients, soil, wind, water.
Biotic Factor: All living organism (Predation, parasitism and cooperation).
Scope Of Ecology
Ecology tell us:
1. The factors that control the number of kind of organisms and maintain its.
2. Why particular kinds of organisms can be found living in one place and no other.
3. The principles that may allow us to predict the future behavior of a organisms.
4. Its helps us to study impact of human on environment.
5. Its study natural ecosystem dominated by tree.
6. Its helps into maintain wildlife, rang management and fishery.
All above point show great scope of ecology in Science.
Application of Ecology
1. Human Impact on the Environment
2. Applied Ecology
4. Wildlife management
5. Rang management
6. Fish farming
Human Impact on the Environment
Man lives and depends on the resources of nature. Shelter food and clothing are the primary requirements of man. To obtain this man has exploited natural resources to the maximum that has resulted in undesirous changes in the natural habitats.
Similarly , deforestation has caused soil erosion and other damage. mineral resources are racing exhaustion due to higher consumption (mismanagement). AISO overpopulation, urbanization, industrialization and mechanized agriculture have resulted in rapid increase in air, water and soil pollution.
All the above-mentioned human activities have lessened -Earth’s ability to support a diversity of life, including humans.
Ecological theories and models help us understand the human impact on environment. They provide a basis for ecosystem and natural resource management preservation and restoration. Al these activities make up applied ecology.
Applied ecology Is concerned with application of ecological principles to environmental and resource management problems. Traditionally, applied ecology meant range, and wildlife and fishery management. Recently applied ecology has spawned the new fields of conservation Biology. restoration ecology, and landscape ecology.
Forests are natural ecosystems dominated by plants. These cover about one-third of land surface and provide habitat for wildlife, fuel wood, fodder, fiber, timber and materials used in wood-based company or industries. Hence, they also regulate climatic conditions such as humidity and temperature of zone and defend soil from wind and water erosion rests transform solar energy into plant biomass which is consumed by animals and mans.
Continued deforestation has resulted in desertification which led to soil erosion, wildlife habitat and increase in the rate of extinction, change in the climate in of decrease in rainfall and increase in temperature and humidity, and shortage of wood and pulpwood. Therefore, afforestation should be Start to maintain it.
There are two schools of thought regarding the management of forests:
According to one the forests should be managed as tree crop or monoculture (single species harvest) in the same way as we manage the food crops. This would help in increase in yield, faster growth and artificial selection of high yield varieties.However, raising tree farms require use of, fertilizer and pesticides that would increase pollution ad danger to disease outbreak.
The other school of thought maintains that forests may be managed as multiple-use forest and not as a crop which may provide wildlife habitat, air and water sheds recreation and harvest as well.
wildlife refers to all non-cultivated plants and non-domesticated animals in an ecosystem. It includes game and fur-bearing vertebrates, and plants and animals which directly with game species. wild animals are an important source of food and skin) Also these are use in research as experimental animals, for recreational purposes (animal hunting).
Similarly, wild flora is facing extinction because of habitat destruction and natural calamities. As a result, many species of wildlife have become extinct or on their way to extinction. wildlife is a renewable resource; therefore, its management is necessary.
Range is grassland meant for grazing animals. So they are interested in the functioning of grassland ecosystems, the effects of grazing intensities on grassland above ground and Below ground production by plans, and the structure or grassy lands are important from man’s viewpoint. the grasslands provide natural pastures for grazing, but domesticated grazing animals have destroyed or disturbed. As a result most of the grasslands convert into agricultural croplands.
The effect of grazing on seed output, reproduction capacity ,vegetative growth and lowering in relation to climate, soil and Scraping are some of the more important ecological aspects. There’re may be taken into consideration and applied for proper range management The rate of removal of resource (grasses) should be regulated to a level up of the system can rebuild itself.
The effect of grazing is an important factor to be consider in rang management. For this purpose, the forage production maintains at very higher level. The range should be divide in compartment and grazing should be according to compartment time table.
Therefore, the demand of animal protein is increasing day by day, steps are being taken for proper management of protein sources. One such common practice is aquaculture. i.e., cultivation of aquatic life (fish, lobsters, oysters, crabs, prawns, etc.) for food. Aquaculture is based on principles of applied ecology and is an effective means for increasing protein food for humanity.