Roots are the part of all plants, its lies below the ground. Its branches profusely to form root system that anchors the plant into the soil and main function of roots in plants absorbed water and minerals from the soil solution.
The outer walls of roots are thine wall hair like structure and elongate cells is called root hair.
Their thin wall helps to absorbed maximum water and most water enter in the plant through roots hair.
The root hair increases the surface area of plant in soil.
In its simplest type, the term root refers to the abstraction of a plant’s rootage. This may be very complicated and depends upon multiple factors like the species of the plant, the composition of the soil and therefore the accessibility of nutrients.
Function of Roots in plants :
The root systems serves to structurally support the plant, contend with alternative plants and for uptake of nutrients from the soil.
Roots grow to specific conditions, which, if changed, will impede a plant’s growth. for instance, a rootage that has developed in dry soil might not be as economical in flooded soil, however plants ar able to adapt to alternative changes within the atmosphere, like seasonal changes.
Growth from top meristems is understood as primary growth, that includes all elongation.
Secondary growth happens at the lateral meristems, specifically the tube-shaped structure cambium and cork cambium. the previous forms secondary vascular tissue and secondary, whereas the latter forms the periderm.
Anatomy of Roots / Structure of Roots in plants :
The center of roots consists of Xylem. Xylem conduct water form soil to plants leaves with the help of roots hair.
Roots plays the necessary role of providing a secure provide of nutrients and water likewise as anchorage and support.
- Xylem conducting element is vessels and tracheid’s.
- Xylem of the root is continuous with the xylem tissue in the stem.
- Xylem closely attached to the phloem cells.
- Xylem and phloem are collectively called vascular tissue.
- That are cover by a protecting layered that called pericycle.
- Pericycle and vascular tissue collectively called Stele.
- Just outside the stele layers that’s called endodermis.
- Endodermal cells are covered with a thickening wall called Casparian stripe.
- Casparian stripe are impermeable to water.
- Due to this dissolved substance cannot pass through endodermal.
- Out side the endodermis many layers of thin walled of living cell with intercellular space called cortex.
- These are very important for aeration.
- These cells are permeable to dissolve substance and water.
Pathways for Movement of water and solutes in Plants:
- Apoplast Pathway
- Symplast Pathway
- Vacuolar Pathway
Movement of water between the cells of a plants is called Apoplast movement of water.
According to munch interconnected cell wall and water filled xylem element should be consider as single system that called apoplast.
Apoplast pathway used in plants where air space is present. More than 50% cellulose wall have free space. These can be occupied by water and provide efficient channel for the movement of water.
The movement of water within the cell of plants that called symplast Pathway.
Symplast is the movement of water through the interconnected protoplasts.
The cytoplasm of each cells is interconnected with each other. This movement is occurred in endodermal are where casaparine strip are present. Symplast is important mechanism for plant growth.
According to some author central vacuoles conduct the symplast movement. They are independent pathway for the movement of water. In this movement water move from vacuole to vacuole through cells. Its move down a water potential gradient.
Factor Affecting Absorption of Water:
There are two types of factor that effect the absorption of growth.
Soil Factor Affecting Absorption of Water:
- Soil Temperature
- Solute Potential of soil solution
- Availability of water
Plant Factors Affecting the absorption of water:
- Root System
- Metabolic activity